New primates described from 1 January 1990 to 1st August 2017

Conservation International – IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group

Russell A. Mittermeier
Executive Vice Chair of Conservation International, and Chair of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group

Anthony B. Rylands
Conservation International and Deputy Chair of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group

One hundred and fifteen primates—species and subspecies—have been described since 1990: 55 from Madagascar, 12 from Africa, 21 from Asia, and 27 from the Neotropics. 68 of the primates described since 1990 are prosimians, 44 are monkeys, and three are gibbons.

Eighty-nine primates—species and subspecies—have been described since 2000: 51 from Madagascar, five from Africa, 15 from Asia, and 18 from the Neotropics.  62 of the primates described since 2000 are prosimians, 24 are monkeys, and three are gibbons.

Six new genera have been described: Callibella M. G. M. van Roosmalen and T. van Roosmalen, 2003 (the dwarf marmoset from the Central Amazon); Rungwecebus Davenport, Stanley, Sargis, De Luca, Mpunga, Machaga & Olson, 2006 (the Kipunji from Tanzania); Carlito Groves and Shekelle, 2010, for the Philippine tarsier; Cheracebus Byrne et al., 2016, for the collared titi monkeys (torquatus group); Plecturocebus Byrne et al., 2016, for the Amazonian titis of the donacophilus and moloch groups; and Paragalago Masters, Génin, Couette,,Groves, Nash, Delpero & Pozzi. 2017, for East African small galagids.

Please note that this list is presented without any judgment as to the validity or otherwise of the various primates described, except for some recent descriptions (in red) where posterior publications have indicated that they are either not valid or are junior synonyms.

Numbers of new species and subspecies

 

Since 1990

Since 2000

  Madagascar 

55

51

  Africa 

12

05

  Asia

21

15

  Neotropics

27

18

  TOTAL

115

89

 

 

 

  Prosimians

68

62

  Monkeys

44

24

  Apes

3

3

 

Prosimians

 

1.    Nycticebus kayan Munds, Nekaris & Ford, 2013

Kayan slow loris

Tarsius dianae Niemitz, Nietsch, Warter & Rumpler, 1991

Dian’s tarsier

2.    Tarsius lariang Merker & Groves, 2006 

Palu tarsier

3.    Tarsius tumpara Shekelle, Groves, Merker & Supriatna, 2008

Siau Island tarsier 

4.    Tarsius wallacei Merker, Driller, Dahruddin, Wirdateti, Sinaga, Perwitasari-Farajallah and Shekelle, 2010 

Wallace’s tarsier

5.    Tarsius spectrumgurskyae Shekelle, Groves, Maryanto & Mittermeier, 2017

Gursky’s spectral tarsier, Manado spectal tarsier

6. Tarsius supriatnai Shekelle, Groves, Maryanto & Mittermeier, 2017

Supriatna’s tarsier, Bumbulan tarsier

7. Loris tardigradus parvus Gamage, Groves, Marikar, Turner, Padmalal & Kotagama, 2017

Northwestern red slender loris

8. Loris lydekkerianus uva Gamage, Groves, Marikar, Turner, Padmalal & Kotagama, 2017

Uva slender Loris

Pseudopotto martini Schwartz, 1996

False potto

9.    Perodicticus potto stockleyi Butynski & De Jong, 2007

Mount Kenya potto

10.Galagoides rondoensis Honess in Kingdon, 1997

Rondo dwarf galago

11.Galagoides zanzibaricus udzungwensis Honess in Kingdon, 1997

Udzungwa Dwarf Galago

12.Galagoides kumbirensis Svensson, Bersacola, Mills, Munds, Nijman, Perkin, Masters, Couette, Nekaris & Bearder, 2017

Angolan dwarf galago

13.Sciurocheirus makandensis Ambrose, 2013

Makandé squirrel galago

14.Microcebus ravelobensis Zimmerman, Cepok, Rakotoarison, Zietemann & Radespiel, 1998

Golden-brown mouse lemur or Lac Ravelobe mouse lemur

15.Microcebus tavaratra Rasoloarison, Goodman & Ganzhorn, 2000

Tavaratra mouse lemur

16.Microcebus sambiranensis Rasoloarison, Goodman & Ganzhorn, 2000

Sambirano mouse lemur

17.Microcebus berthae Rasoloarison, Goodman & Ganzhorn, 2000

Madame Berthe’s mouse lemur

18.Microcebus lehilahytsara Roos and Kappeler in Kappeler, Rasoloarison, Razafimanantsoa, Walter & Roos, 2005

Goodman’s mouse lemur

 

19.Microcebus mittermeieri Louis, Coles, Andriantompohavana, Sommer, Engberg, Zaonarivelo, Mayor & Brenneman, 2006

Mittermeier’s mouse lemur

20.Microcebus jollyae Louis, Coles, Andriantompohavana, Sommer, Engberg, Zaonarivelo, Mayor & Brenneman, 2006

Jolly’s mouse lemur

 

21.Microcebus simmonsi Louis, Coles, Andriantompohavana, Sommer, Engberg, Zaonarivelo, Mayor & Brenneman, 2006

Simmons’ mouse lemur

 

22.Microcebus mamiratra Andriantompohavana, Zaonarivelo, Engberg, Randriamampionona, McGuire, Shore, Rakotonomenjanahary, Brenneman & Louis, 2006

Nosy Be mouse lemur

 

 

Microcebus lokobensis Olivieri, Zimmermann, Randrianambinina, Rassoloharijaona, Rakotondravony, Gsuchanski & Radespiel, 2007

A junior synonym of Microcebus mamiratra Olivieri et al., 2006

23.Microcebus bongolavensis Olivieri, Zimmermann, Randrianambinina, Rassoloharijaona, Rakotondravony, Gsuchanski & Radespiel, 2007

Bongolava mouse lemur

 

24.Microcebus danfossi Olivieri, Zimmermann, Randrianambinina, Rassoloharijaona, Rakotondravony, Gsuchanski & Radespiel, 2007

Ambarijeby mouse lemur

 

25.Microcebus macarthurii Radespiel, Olivieri, Rasolofoson, Rakotondratsimba, Rakotonirainy, Rasoloharijoana, Randrianambinina, Ratsimbazafy, Ratelolahay, Randriamboavonjy, Rasolofoharivelo, Craul, Rakotozafy & Randrianarison, 2008

Anjiahely mouse lemur

26.Microcebus margotmarshae Louis Jr., Engberg, McGuire, McCormick, Randriamampionona, Ranaivoarisoa, Bailey, Mittermeier & Lei, 2008

Margot Marsh’s or Antafindro mouse lemur

27.Microcebus arnholdi Louis Jr., Engberg, McGuire, McCormick, Randriamampionona, Ranaivoarisoa, Bailey, Mittermeier & Lei, 2008

Arnhold’s or Montagne d’Ambre mouse lemur

28.Microcebus gerpi Radespiel, Ratsimbazafy, Rasoloharijaona, Raveloson, Andriaholinirini, Rakotondravony, Randrianarison & Randrianambinina, 2011

The Gerp’s mouse lemur

29.Microcebus marohita Rasoloarison, Weisrock, Yoder, Rakotondravony & Kappeler, 2013

Marohita mouse lemur

30.Microcebus tanosi Rasoloarison, Weisrock, Yoder, Rakotondravony & Kappeler, 2013

Anosy mouse lemur

31.Microcebus manitrata Hotaling, Foley, Lawrence, Bocanegra, Blanco, Rasoloarison, Kappeler, Barrett, Yoder and Weisrock, 2016

Bemanasy mouse lemur

32.Microcebus ganzhorni Hotaling, Foley, Lawrence, Bocanegra, Blanco, Rasoloarison, Kappeler, Barrett, Yoder and Weisrock, 2016

Ganzhorn's mouse lemur

33.Microcebus boraha Hotaling, Foley, Lawrence, Bocanegra, Blanco, Rasoloarison, Kappeler, Barrett, Yoder and Weisrock, 2016

Nosy Boraha mouse lemur

Cheirogaleus ravus Groves, 2000

Large iron-grey dwarf lemur. Groeneveld et al. (2009) clarified that C. ravus is synonymous with C. major

34.Cheirogaleus minusculus Groves, 2000

Lesser iron-grey dwarf lemur

35.Cheirogaleus lavasoensis Thiele, Razafimahatratra & Hapke, 2013 

Lavasoa dwarf lemur

36.Cheirogaleus andysabini Lei, McLain, Frasier, Taylor, Bailey, Engberg, Ginter, Nash, Randriamampionona, Groves, Mittermeier & Louis, Jr., 2015 

Montagne d’Ambre dwarf lemur

37.Cheirogaleus shethi Frasier, Lei, McLain, Taylor, Bailey, Ginter, Nash, Randriamampionona, Groves, Mittermeier & Louis Jr., 2016 

Ankarana or Sheth’s dwarf lemur

38.Mirza zaza Kappeler & Roos in Kappeler, Rasoloarison, Razafimanantsoa, Walter & Roos, 2005

Northern giant mouse lemur

39.Hapalemur griseus ranomafanensis Rabarivola, Prosper, Zaramody, Andriaholinirina and Hauwy, 2007

Ranomafana bamboo lemur

40.Hapalemur griseus gilberti Rabarivola, Prosper, Zaramody, Andriaholinirina and Hauwy, 2007

Beanamalao bamboo lemur

41.Phaner furcifer pallescens Groves & Tattersall, 1991

Pale fork-marked lemur

42.Phaner furcifer parienti Groves & Tattersall, 1991

Sambirano fork-marked lemur

43.Phaner furcifer electromontis Groves & Tattersall, 1991

Montagne d’Ambre fork-marked lemur

44.Lepilemur aeeclis Andriaholinirina, Fausser, Roos, Rabarivola, Ravoarimanana, Zinner, Thalmann, Ganzhorn, Meier, Hilgartner, Walter, Zaramody, Langer, Hahn, Zimmermann., Radespiel, Craul, Tomiuk, Tattersall & Rumpler, 2006

Antafia sportive lemur

 

 

 

45.Lepilemur randrianasoloi Andriaholinirina, Fausser, Roos, Rabarivola, Ravoarimanana, Zinner, Thalmann, Ganzhorn, Meier, Hilgartner, Walter, Zaramody, Langer, Hahn, Zimmermann., Radespiel, Craul, Tomiuk, Tattersall & Rumpler, 2006

Bemeraha sportive lemur

 

 

 

46.Lepilemur sahamalazensis Andriaholinirina, Fausser, Roos, Rabarivola, Ravoarimanana, Zinner, Thalmann, Ganzhorn, Meier, Hilgartner, Walter, Zaramody, Langer, Hahn, Zimmermann., Radespiel, Craul, Tomiuk, Tattersall & Rumpler, 2006

Sahamalaza sportive lemur

 

 

47.Lepilemur mittermeieri Rabarivola, Zaramody, Fausser, Andriaholinirina, Roos, Zinner, Marcel & Rumpler, 2006

Mittermeier’s sportive lemur

48.Lepilemur ahmansonorum Louis Jr., Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney & Brenneman, 2006

Tsiombikibo sportive lemur

 

 

49.Lepilemur betsileo Louis Jr., Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney & Brenneman, 2006

Betsileo sportive lemur

 

 

 

50.Lepilemur fleuretae Louis Jr., Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney and Brenneman, 2006

Andohahela sportive lemur

 

 

 

51.Lepilemur grewcockorum Louis Jr., Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney & Brenneman, 2006

Anjiamangirana sportive lemur

 

 

52.Lepilemur hubbardorum Louis Jr., Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney & Brenneman, 2006

Zombitse sportive lemur

 

 

 

53.Lepilemur jamesorum Louis Jr., Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney and Brenneman, 2006

Manombo sportive lemur

 

 

 

54.Lepilemur milanoii Louis, Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney & Brenneman, 2006

Daraina sportive lemur

 

 

 

55.Lepilemur petteri Louis, Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney & Brenneman, 2006

Petter’s sportive lemur

 

 

 

56.Lepilemur seali Louis, Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney & Brenneman, 2006

Seal’s sportive lemur

 

 

 

57.Lepilemur tymerlachsonorum Louis, Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney & Brenneman, 2006

Nosy Be sportive lemur

58.Lepilemur wrightae Louis, Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney & Brenneman, 2006

Wright’s sportive lemur

 

59.Lepilemur otto Craul, Zimmermann, Rasoloharijaona, Randrianambinina & Radespiel 2007

Ambodimahabibo sportive lemur

Lepilemur manasamody Craul, Zimmermann, Rasoloharijaona,Randrianambinina & Radespiel 2007

Considered a junior synonym of L. grewcocki Louis Jr. et al., 2006 (see note at bottom of table¹)

60.Lepilemur scottorum Lei, Engberg, Andriantompohavana, McGuire, Mittermeier, Zaonarivelo, Brenneman & Louis Jr., 2008

Masoala sportive lemur

 

61.Lepilemur hollandorum Ramaromilanto, Lei, Engberg, Johnson, Sitzmann and Louis, 2009

Mananara-nord  sportive lemur

62.Avahi unicolor Thalmann & Geissmann, 2000

Sambirano woolly lemur

63.Avahi cleesei Thalmann & Geissmann, 2005

Bemeraha woolly lemur

64.Avahi peyrierasi Zaramody, Fausser, Roos, Zinner, Andriaholinirina, Rabarivola, Norscia, Tattersall & Rumpler, 2006

Peyriéras’ woolly lemur

65.Avahi meridionalis Zaramody, Fausser, Roos, Zinner, Andriaholinirina, Rabarivola, Norscia, Tattersall & Rumpler, 2006

Southern woolly lemur

66.Avahi ramanantsoavanai Zaramody, Fausser, Roos, Zinner, Andriaholinirina, Rabarivola, Norscia, Tattersall & Rumpler, 2006

Manombo woolly lemur [described by Zaramody et al. (2006) as  a subspecies of meridionalis, but Andriantompohavana et al. (2007) considered it to be a full species]

67.Avahi betsileo Andriantompohavana, Lei, Zaonarivelo, Engberg, Nalanirina, McGuire, Shore, Andrianasolo, Herrington, Brenneman, & Louis, 2007

Betsileo woolly lemur

 

68.Avahi mooreorum Lei, Engberg, Andriantompohavana, McGuire, Mittermeier, Zaonarivelo, Brenneman & Louis Jr., 2008

Masoala woolly lemur

 

Old World monkeys – Asia

 

69.Macaca pagensis siberu Fuentes & Olson, 1995

Siberut macaque

70.Macaca leucogenys Cheng Li, Chao Zhao & Peng-Fei Fan, 2015

White-cheeked Macaque

71.Macaca munzala Sinha, Datta, Madhusudan & Mishra, 2005

Arunachal macaque

72.Presbytis melalophos bicolor Aimi and Bakar, 1992

Sumatran sureli

73.Semnopithecus auratus ebenus Brandon-Jones, 1995

Wulsin’s ebony leaf monkey

74.Pygathrix cinereus Nadler, 1997

Grey-shanked douc langur

[First described as subspecies of Pygathrix nemaeus]

75.Rhinopithecus roxellana hubeiensis Wang, Jiang & Li, 1998

Hubei golden snub-nosed monkey

76.Rhinopithecus roxellana qinlingensis Wang, Jiang & Li, 1998

Qinling golden snub-nosed monkey

77.Rhinopithecus strykeri Geissmann, Ngwe Lwin, Saw Soe Aung, Thet Naing Aung, Zin Myo Aung, Tony Htin Hla, Grindley & Momberg, 2010

Burmese snub-nosed monkey

Trachypithecus geei bhutanensis Wangchuk, Inouye & Hare, 2003

Bhutan langur²

Macaca thibetana guiahouensis Y.-X. Wang & Jiang in Jiang, Wang, Y.-X. & Wang, Q.-S., 1996

Not considered valid in Mittermeier et al. (2013

Macaca thibetana huangshanensis Jiang & Wang in Jiang, Wang, Y.-X. & Wang, Q.-S., 1996

Not considered valid in Mittermeier et al. (2013) 

78.Trachypithecus cristatus selangorensis Roos, Nadler & Walter, 2008

West Malaysian silvered langur

Old World monkeys – Africa

 

79.Miopithecus ogouensis Kingdon, 1997

Northern talapoin

80.Cercopithecus cephus ngottoensis Colyn, 1999

White-nosed moustached monkey

81.Cercopithecus erythrogaster pococki Grubb, Lernould & Oates, 1999

Nigeria white-throated guenon

82. Cercopithecus lomamiensis Hart, Detwiler, Gilbert, Burrell, Fuller, Emetshu, Hart, Vosper, Sargis & Tosi, 2012

Lesula

83.Colobus badius semlikiensis Colyn, 1991

Semliki red colobus

84.Procolobus badius epieni Grubb & Powell, 1999

Niger Delta red colobus

85.Rungwecebus kipunji (Jones, Ehardt, Butynski, Davenport, Mpunga, Machaga & De Luca, 2005)

 

Highland mangabey [First described in the genus Lophocebus. Given its own genus Rungwecebus by Davenport et al., 2006]

New World monkeys

 

86.Callibella humilis (Van Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen, Mittermeier & Fonseca, 1998)

Black-crowned dwarf marmoset

[First described in the genus Callithrix. Given its own genus Callibella by M.G.M. van Roosmalen and T. van Roosmalen (2003), see also Aguiar and Lacher (2003)]

87.Callithrix nigriceps Ferrari & Lopes, 1992

Black-headed marmoset

88.Callithrix mauesi Mittermeier, Ayres & Schwarz, 1992

Maués marmoset

89.Callithrix argentata marcai Alperin, 1993

Marca’s marmoset

90.Callithrix saterei Sousa e Silva Jr & Noronha, 1998

Sateré marmoset

Callithrix manicorensis Van Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen, Mittermeier & Rylands, 2000

Manicoré marmoset. A synonym of M. marcai. See Garbino (2014)

91.Callithrix acariensis Van Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen, Mittermeier & Rylands, 2000

Rio Acarí marmoset

92.Mico rondoni Ferrari, Sena, Schneider, and Silva Jr., 2010

Rondon’s marmoset

93.Saguinus fuscicollis mura Röhe, Silva Jr., Sampaio & Rylands, 2009

Gray-fronted saddleback tamarin

94.Leontopithecus caissara Lorini and Persson, 1990

Black-faced lion tamarin

95.Cebus kaapori Queiroz, 1992

Ka’apor capuchin. A junior synonym of Cebus flavius (Schreber, 1774), see Oliveira and Langguth (2006).

Cebus queirozi Pontes & Malta in Pontes, Malta & Asforra, 2006

Blond capuchin³

96.Aotus jorgehernandezi Defler & Bueno, 2007

Hernández-Camacho’s night monkey

97.Callicebus bernhardi Van Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen & Mittermeier, 2002

Prince Bernhard’s titi monkey

98.Callicebus stephennashi Van Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen & Mittermeier, 2002

Stephen Nash’s titi

99.Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae Hershkovitz, 1990

Blond titi

100.Callicebus coimbrai Kobayashi & Langguth, 1999

Coimbra-Filho’s titi

101.Callicebus aureipalatii Wallace, Gómez, A. Felton & A. M. Felton, 2006

Madidi titi monkey

102  Callicebus caquetensis Defler, Bueno & García, 2010

Caquetá titi

102.Callicebus vieirai Gualda-Barros, Nascimento & Amaral, 2012

Vieira’s titi

103     Callicebus miltoni Dalponte, Silva & Silva-Júnior, 2014

Milton’s titi

104     Callicebus urubambensis Vermeer and Tello-Alvarado, 2015 

Urubamba brown titi

105     Pithecia isabela Marsh, 2014

Isabel’s saki

106     Pithecia cazuzai Marsh, 2014

Cazuza’s saki

107     Pithecia mittermeieri Marsh, 2014

Mittermeier’s Tapajós saki 

108     Pithecia rylandsi Marsh, 2014

Rylands’ bald-faced saki

109     Pithecia pissinatti Marsh, 2014

Pissinatti’s bald-faced saki

110     Cacajao hosomi Boubli, Silva, Amado, Hrbek, Pontual & Farias, 2008

Neblina black uakari

111     Cacajao ayresi Boubli, Silva, Amado, Hrbek, Pontual & Farias, 2008

Ayres’ black uakari

Lagothrix lugens defleri Mantilla-Meluk, 2013

Defler’s woolly monkey

Lagothrix lugens sapiens Mantilla-Meluk, 2013

Caquetá woolly monkey

Apes

 

112     Nomascus annamensis Van Ngoc Thinh, Mootnick, Vu Ngoc Thanh, Nadler & Roos, 2010

Northern buff-cheeked gibbon

113     Hoolock hoolock mishmiensis Choudhury, 2013

Mishmi Hills hoolock gibbon

114     Hoolock tianxing Peng-Fei Fan, Kai He, Xing Chen, Ortiz, Bin Zhang, Chao Zhao, Yun-Qiao Li. Hai-Bo Zhang, Kimock, Wen-ZhiWang, Groves, Turvey, Roos, Helgen & Xue-Long Jiang, 2017

Skywalker hoolock gibbon or Gaoligong hoolock gibbon

1 Zinner et al. (2007) examined conflicting results in the genetic analysis of sportive lemurs in northwest Madagascar; those within the range of what was once considered to be Lepilemur dorsalis.  Since the type localities of L. dorsalis Gray, 1871 and L. grandidieri Forsyth Major, 1894, were both “Northwest Madagascar”, the proper name of one or two of the new species from the region (sahamalazensis, grewcocki, mittermeieri, tymlerachsoni) could be either of these two.  The true “dorsalis”, as such, has not been identified, and no attempt has been made to identify grandidieri, formerly a junior synonym of dorsalis. Genetic analysis of the holotypes of dorsalis and grandidieri is needed to resolve this.  Zinner et al. (2007) indicated, therefore, that tymerlachsoni and/or mittermeieri might be junior synonyms.  They also indicated that L. manasamody Craul et al., 2007 is probably a junior synonym of L. grewcocki Louis Jr. et al. 2006—sampling sites were less than 2 km apart, with no evident geographic barrier—but “further testing is necessary”. Under any circumstances, Zinner et al. (2007) concluded that “the number of species in NW Madagascar is rather less than it had seemed to be as of May, 2007.”

2 Brandon-Jones (2005) reported that “Wangchuk et al. (2003) had described and published photographs of a population they recognized as a new subspecies of golden leaf monkey from Bhutan.  Under the stricter criteria of availability introduced in the latest (fourth) edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999), Article 16.1 insists that every new name published after 1999 must explicitly be indicated as intentionally new.  Wangchuk et al. (2003) failed to satisfy this requirement as they treated the subspecific name as available from an unpublished report (Wangchuk, 2003). T[rachypithecus] g[eei] bhutanensis is therefore a nomen nudum. Unless or until it is properly published, it should be cited in a publication only as an unavailable junior synonym of T. geei or T. pileatus. Authors who recognize the subspecies should consider it nameless. Tom Gnoske (pers. comm..) told me that the capped leaf monkey has apparently entered territory formerly exclusive to T. geei by crossing a man-made bridge, constructed in about 1980 over the Manas River in east Bhutan.  The alleged new subspecies requires confirmation as it may only constitute a resulting hybrid population” (p.1).  See also Choudhury (2008).

3 Mantilla-Meluk (2013) described two new subspecies of Lagothrix lugens: L. l. sapiens and L. l. defleri. They are considered junior synonyms of Lagothrix lagothricha lugens based on Botero and Stevenson (2014) and Defler (2014).

References

Aguiar, J. M. and Lacher Jr., T. E. 2003. On the morphological distinctiveness of Callithrix humilis Van Roosmalen et al. 1998. Neotrop. Primates 11(1): 11–18.

Aimi, M. and Bakar, A. 1992. Taxonomy and distribution of Presbytis melalophos group in Sumatra, Indonesia. Primates 33: 191–206.

Alperin, R. 1993. Callithrix argentata (Linnaeus, 1771): considerações taxonômicas e descrição de subespécie nova. Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi, Sér. Zool. 9(2): 317–328.

Ambrose, L. 2013. Sciurocheirus makandensis sp. nov. Makandé Squirrel Galago. In: The Mammals of Africa, Vol. 2, T. M. Butynski, J. Kingdon and J. Kalina (eds.), pp.421–422. Bloomsbury Publishing, London.

Andriaholinirina, N., Fausser, J.-L., Roos, C., Rabarivola, C., Ravoarimanana, I., Zinner, D., Thalmann,U., Ganzhorn, J. U., Meier, B., Hilgartner, R.,Walter, L., Zaramody, A., Langer, C., Hahn, T., Zimmermann, E., Radespiel, U., Craul, M., Tomiuk, J., Tattersall, I. and Rumpler, Y. 2006. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the sportive lemurs (Lepilemur, Primates). BMC Evol. Biol. 6: 17.

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See Groves, C. P. 1997–1998. Pseudopotto martini: A new potto? Afr. Primates 3(1–2): 42–43; Bearder, S. 1997–1998. Pseudopotto: When is a potto not a potto? African Primates 3(1–2): 43–44; Sarmiento, E. 1997–1998. The validity of “Pseudopotto martini”. Afr. Primates 3(1–2): 44–45.