Primates of Asia

Taxonomy and Conservation Status
February 2009

Family Lorisidae
Subfamily Lorisinae

Loris lydekkerianus grandis
 
Loris lydekkerianus lydekkerianus
Loris lydekkerianus malabaricus
Loris lydekkerianus nordicus
Highland slender loris
 
Mysore slender loris
Malabar slender loris
North Ceylonese slender loris
EN A2cd+4cd; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
NT
NT
EN A2cd+4cd
Loris tardigradus nycticeboides
 
Loris tardigradus tardigradus
Ceylon Mtn. slender loris
 
Red slender loris
EN A2cd+4cd; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
EN A2cd+4cd; C1
Nycticebus bengalensis Northern slow loris VU A2acd+3cd+4acd
Nycticebus coucang Greater slow loris VU A2cd
Nycticebus javanicus Javan slow loris EN A2cd
Nycticebus menagensis Bornean slow loris VU A2cd+3cd
Nycticebus pygmaeus Pygmy slow loris VU A2cd

Family Tarsiidae

Tarsius bancanus bancanus
Tarsius bancanus borneanus
Tarsius bancanus natunensis
Tarsius bancanus saltator
Western or Horsfield’s tarsier
Bornean tarsier
Natuna tarsier
Belitung tarsier
EN A2cd
VU A2cd
CR B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)
EN B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)
Tarsius dentatus
VU A4c
Tarsius lariang Palu tarsier DD
Tarsius pelengensis Peleng tarsier EN B1ab(iii)
Tarsius pumilus Pygmy or Mountain tarsier DD
Tarsius sangirensis Sangihe tarsier EN B1ab(ii,iii)
Tarsius syrichta carbonarius
Tarsius syrichta fraterculus
Tarsius syrichta syrichta
Mindanao tarsier
Bohol tarsier
Philippine tarsier
NE
NE
NT
Tarsius tarsier Makassar tarsier VU A2c
Tarsius tumpara Siau Island tarsier NE

Family Cercopithecidae
Subfamily Cercopithecinae

Macaca arctoides Stumptail or bear macaque VU A3cd+4cd
Macaca assamensis assamensis
Macaca assamensis pelops
Eastern Assamese macaque
Western Assamese macaque
NT
NT
Macaca cyclopis Formosan rock or Taiwan macaque LC
Macaca fascicularis atriceps
Macaca fascicularis aurea
Macaca fascicularis condorensis
Macaca fascicularis fascicularis
Macaca fascicularis fusca
Macaca fascicularis karimondjawae
Macaca fascicularis lasiae
Macaca fascicularis philippinenesis
Macaca fascicularis tua
Macaca fascicularis umbrosa
Dark-crowned long-tailed macaque
Burmese long-tailed macaque
Con Son long-tailed macaque
Common long-tailed macaque
Simeulue long-tailed macaque
Karimunjawa long-tailed macaque
Lasia long-tailed macaque
Philippine long-tailed macaque
Maratua long-tailed macaque
Nicobar long-tailed macaque
DD
DD
VU D1+2
LC
DD
DD
DD
NT
DD
VU D2
Macaca fuscata fuscata
Macaca fuscata yakui
Japanese macaque
Yaku macaque
LC
LC
Macaca hecki Heck's macaque VU A3cd+4cd
Macaca leonina Northern pigtail macaque VU A2cd+3cd+4cd
Macaca maurus Moor macaque EN A2cd
Macaca mulatta lasiota
Macaca mulatta littoralis
Macaca mulatta mulatta
Macaca mulatta sanctijohannis
Macaca mulatta siamica
Macaca mulatta tcheliensis
Macaca mulatta vestita
West Chinese rhesus macaque
South Chinese rhesus macaque
Indian rhesus macaque
Insular Chinese rhesus macaque
Indochinese rhesus macaque
North Chinese rhesus macaque
Tibetan rhesus macaque
NE
NE
LC
NE
NE
NE
NE
Macaca munzala Arunachal macaque EN B1ab(v); D
Macaca nemestrina Sundaland pigtail macaque VU A2cd
Macaca nigra Celebes or crested black macaque CR A2cd
Macaca nigrescens Gorontalo or Dumoga-Bone macaque A2cd+3cd+4cd; B1ab(ii,iv)
Macaca ochreata brunnescens
Macaca ochreata ochreata
Muna-Butung macaque
Booted macaque
VU A3c; B1ab(i,ii,iii)
VU A3c
Macaca pagensis Pagai macaque CR A2cd+4cd
Macaca radiata diluta
Macaca radiata radiata
Light-bellied bonnet macaque
Dark-bellied bonnet macaque
LC
LC
Macaca siberu Siberut macaque VU A2cd
Macaca silenus Lion-tailed macaque EN C2a(i)
Macaca sinica aurifrons
Macaca sinica opisthomelas
 
Macaca sinica sinica
Pale-fronted toque macaque
Hill zone toque macaque
 
Common toque macaque
EN A2cd+3cd
A2c+3c; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv)
EN A2cd+3cd
Macaca thibetana Tibetan macaque NT
Macaca tonkeana Tonkean macaque VU A2cd+3cd+4cd

Subfamily Colobinae

Nasalis larvatus larvatus
Nasalis larvatus orientalis
Stripe-naped proboscis monkey
Plain-naped proboscis monkey
EN A2cd
A2cd; B1ab(iii,v); C2a(i)
Presbytis chrysomelas chrysomelas
Presbytis chrysomelas cruciger
Bornean banded surili
Tricolor surili
CR A2cd
CR A2cd
Presbytis comata Javan grizzled surili EN C2a(i)
Presbytis femoralis batuana
Presbytis femoralis femoralis
Presbytis femoralis percura
Presbytis femoralis robinsoni
North Sumatran banded surili
Raffles' banded surili
East Sumatran banded surili
Robinson's banded surili
DD
VU B1b(ii,iii,iv,v)
DD
NT
Presbytis fredericae Javan fuscous surili DD
Presbytis frontata White-fronted surili VU A2cd
Presbytis hosei canicrus
Presbytis hosei everetti
Presbytis hosei hosei
Presbytis hosei sabana
Miller's grizzled surili
Everett’s grizzled surili
Hose's grizzled surili
Crested or Saban grizzled surili
EN A4cd
VU A2cd
DD
EN A4cd
Presbytis melalophos bicolor
Presbytis melalophos melalophos
Presbytis melalophos mitrata
Presbytis melalophos nobilis
Presbytis melalophos sumatrana
Bicolored mitered surili
Yellow-handed mitered surili
Depigmented mitered surili
Ferruginous mitered surili
Sumatran mitered surili
DD
NT
EN A2cd
NE
EN A2cd
Presbytis natunae Natuna surili VU C2a(iii)
Presbytis potenziani potenziani
Presbytis potenziani siberu
Golden-bellied Mentawai surili
Sombre-bellied Mentawai surili
CR A2cd
EN A2cd
Presbytis rubicunda carimatae
Presbytis rubicunda chrysea
Presbytis rubicunda ignita
Presbytis rubicunda rubicunda
Presbytis rubicunda rubida
Red-naped red surili
Orange-backed red surili
Orange-naped red surili
Maroon red surili
DD
DD
LC
LC
LC
Presbytis siamensis cana
Presbytis siamensis paenulata
Presbytis siamensis rhionis
Presbytis siamensis siamensis
Riau pale-thighed surili
Mantled pale-thighed surili
Bintan pale-thighed surili
Malayan pale-thighed surili
NT
NT
DD
NT
Presbytis thomasi Sumatran grizzled surili VU A2c
Pygathrix cinerea Gray-shanked douc CR A2cd+3cd+4cd
Pygathrix nemaeus Red-shanked douc EN A2cd+3cd+4cd
Pygathrix nigripes Black-shanked douc EN A2cd
Rhinopithecus avunculus Tonkin snub-nosed monkey CR C2a(i)
Rhinopithecus bieti Yunnan snub-nosed monkey EN C1
Rhinopithecus brelichi Guizhou snub-nosed monkey EN B1ab(iii,v); C2a(ii)
Rhinopithecus roxellana hubeiensis
Rhinopithecus roxellana qinlingensis
Rhinopithecus roxellana roxellana
Hubei golden snub-nosed monkey
Qinling golden snub-nosed monk
Moupin golden snub-nosed monkey
EN A2acd; B1ab(iii,v); D
EN C1
EN A2acd
Semnopithecus ajax Dark-armed Himalayan langur B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii); D
Semnopithecus entellus achates
Semnopithecus entellus anchises
Semnopithecus entellus entellus
Plains langur
Deccan langur
Bengal Hanuman langur
NE
NE
LC
Semnopithecus hector Terai langur NT
Semnopithecus hypoleucos Malabar langur VU A2d
Semnopithecus schistaceus Pale-armed Himalayan langur LC
Semnopithecus priam priam
Semnopithecus priam thersites
White-handed crested langur
Grey-handed crested langur
NT
EN A4cd
Trachypithecus johnii Nilgiri black langur VU C2a(i)
Simias concolor concolor
Simias concolor siberu
Pagai pig-tailed snub-nosed monkey
Siberut pig-tailed snub-nosed monkey
CR A2cd
CR A2cd
Trachypithecus auratus auratus
Trachypithecus auratus mauritius
Trachypithecus auratus pyrrhus
Spangled ebony langur
West Javan ebony langur
Frosted ebony leaf monkey
VU A2cd
VU A2cd
NE
Trachypithecus barbei argenteus
Trachypithecus barbei barbei
Trachypithecus barbei holotephreus
Silver gray leaf monkey
Barbe's leaf monkey
Ash gray leaf monkey
NE
DD
NE
Trachypithecus c. cristatus
Trachypithecus c. selangorensis
Trachypithecus c. vigilans

NT
NE
CR B1ab(ii,iii)
Trachypithecus delacouri White-rumped black leaf monkey CR C2a(i)
Trachypithecus francoisi ebenus
Trachypithecus francoisi francoisi
Wulsin's black leaf monkey
White-sideburned black leaf monkey
NE
EN A2cd
Trachypithecus geei Golden leaf monkey EN B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C1+2a(i)
Trachypithecus germaini Germain's silver leaf monkey EN A2cd
Trachypithecus hatinhensis Bar-headed black leaf monkey EN A2cd
Trachypithecus laotum White-browed black leaf monkey VU A3cd+4cd
Trachypithecus obscurus carbo
Trachypithecus obscurus corax
Trachypithecus obscurus flavicauda
Trachypithecus obscurus halonifer
Trachypithecus obscurus obscurus
Trachypithecus obscurus sanctorum
Trachypithecus obscurus seimundi
Trachypithecus obscurus smithi
Trachypithecus obscurus styx
Tarutao dusky leaf monkey
Dark-bellied dusky leaf monkey
Blond-tailed dusky leaf monkey
Cantor's dusky leaf monkey
Spectacled leaf monkey
Zadetkyi Kyun dusky leaf monkey
Phangan dusky leaf monkey
Smith's dusky leaf monkey
Perhentian dusky leaf monkey
LC
NE
LC
LC
LC
VU D2
VU D2
NE
VU D2
Trachypithecus pileatus brahma
Trachypithecus pileatus durga
Trachypithecus pileatus pileatus
Trachypithecus pileatus tenebricus
Buff-bellied capped leaf monkey
Orange-bellied capped leaf monkey
Blond-bellied capped leaf monkey
Tenebrous capped leaf monkey
DD
EN C1+2a(i)
EN C1+2a(i)
EN C2a(i)
Trachypithecus phayrei crepusculus
Trachypithecus phayrei phayrei
Trachypithecus phayrei shanicus
 
Phayre's leaf monkey
Shan States' leaf monkey
EN A2cd
EN A2cd
EN C1
Trachypithecus p. leucocephalus
Trachypithecus p. poliocephalus
White-headed black leaf langur
Tonkin hooded black langur
CR A2cd
CR A2acd; B1ab(v); D
Trachypithecus vetulus monticola
 
Trachypithecus vetulus nestor
Trachypithecus vetulus philbricki
Trachypithecus vetulus vetulus
Highland purple-faced langur
 
Western purple-faced langur
Northern purple-faced langur
Southern purple-faced langur
EN A2cd+3cd+4cd; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv)
CR A2cd+3cd+4cd
EN A2cd+4cd
EN A2cd+4cd
Trachypithecus villosus margarita
Trachypithecus villosus villosus
Elliot's silver leaf monkey
Griffith’s silver leaf monkey
NE
NE

Family Hylobatidae

Hoolock hoolock Western hoolock gibbon EN A2acd+3cd+4acd
Hoolock leuconedys Eastern hoolock gibbon VU A3cd
Hylobates albobarbis Bornean agile gibbon EN A4cd
Hylobates agilis agilis
Hylobates agilis unko
Mountain agile gibbon
Lowland agile gibbon
EN A2cd
NE
Hylobates klossii Kloss’s or Mentawai gibbon EN A2cd
Hylobates lar carpenteri
Hylobates lar entelloides
Hylobates lar lar
Hylobates lar vestitus
Hylobates lar yunnanensis
Carpenter’s white-handed gibbon
Central white-handed gibbon
Malayan white-handed gibbon
Sumatran white-handed gibbon
Yunnan white-handed gibbon
EN A2cd
VU A2cd
EN A2cd
EN A2cd
DD
Hylobates moloch moloch
Hylobates moloch pongoalsoni
West Javan silvery gibbon
Central Javan silvery gibbon
EN C2a(i)
NE
Hylobates muelleri abbotti
Hylobates muelleri funereus
Hylobates muelleri muelleri
Abbott’s grey gibbon
Northern grey gibbon
Müller’s grey gibbon
EN A2cd
EN A4cd
EN A2cd
Hylobates pileatus Pileated or capped gibbon EN A4cd
Nomascus concolor concolor
Nomascus concolor furvogaster
Nomascus concolor jingdongensis
Nomascus concolor lu
Tonkin black crested gibbon
West Yunnan black crested gibbon
Central Yunnan black crested gibbon
Laotian black crested gibbon
CR A2cd;C2a(i)
CR A2cd;C2a(i)
CR A2cd;C2a(i)
CR A2cd;C2a(i)
Nomascus leucogenys Northern white-cheeked crested gibbon CR A2cd+3cd
Nomascus gabriellae Yellow-cheeked crested gibbon VU A1cd+2cd
Nomascus hainanus Hainan black crested gibbon CR A2acd; B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v); C2a(ii); D
Nomascus nasutus Cao-Vit black crested gibbon CR A2acd; C2a(i); D
Nomascus siki Southern white-cheeked crested gibbon EN A2cd
Symphalangus s. continentis
Symphalangus s. syndactylus
Malayan siamang
Sumatran siamang
NE
EN A2cd

Family Pongidae

Pongo abelii Sumatran orangutan CR A2cd
Pongo pygmaeus morio
Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus
Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii
Eastern Bornean orangutan
Western Bornean orangutan
Southern Bornean orangutan
EN A2cd
EN A2cd
EN A2cd

 

Total Taxa: 187
Total Threatened: 75
Percent Threatened: 40%

Note: This is presented as a working taxonomy and is not definitive.

The conservation status of each species is based on assessment summaries provided by the IUCN Red List. The Red List website offers more information on the threat categories listed here.