Primates of Madagascar

Taxonomy and Conservation Status
February 2009

Family Cheirogaleidae

Microcebus arnholdi Arnhold's mouse lemur NE
Microcebus berthae Madame Berthe's mouse lemur EN B1ab(iii)
Microcebus bongolavensis Bongolava mouse lemur DD
Microcebus danfossi Danfoss' mouse lemur DD
Microcebus griseorufus Rufous-Grey mouse lemur LC
Microcebus jollyae Jolly's mouse lemur DD
Microcebus lehilahytsara Goodman's mouse lemur DD
Microcebus macarthurii MacArthur's mouse lemur NE
Microcebus mamiratra Claire's mouse lemur DD
Microcebus margotmarshae Margot Marsh's mouse lemur NE
Microcebus mittermeieri Mittermeier's mouse lemur DD
Microcebus murinus Grey mouse lemur LC
Microcebus myoxinus Pygmy mouse lemur DD
Microcebus ravelobensis Golden-Brown mouse lemur EN B1ab(iii)
Microcebus rufus Rufous mouse lemur LC
Microcebus sambiranensis Sambirano mouse lemur EN B1ab(iii)
Microcebus simmonsi Simmons' mouse lemur DD
Microcebus tavaratra Northern rufous mouse lemur EN B1ab(iii)
Allocebus trichotis Hairy-Eared dwarf lemur DD
Mirza coquereli Coquerel's mouse lemur NT A2c
Mirza zaza Northern giant mouse lemur DD
Cheirogaleus adipicaudatus Southern fat-tailed dwarf lemur DD
Cheirogaleus crossleyi Furry-Eared dwarf lemur DD
Cheirogaleus major Greater dwarf lemur LC
Cheirogaleus medius Eastern fat-tailed dwarf lemur LC
Cheirogaleus minusculus Lesser iron-grey dwarf lemur DD
Cheirogaleus ravus Greater iron-grey dwarf lemur DD
Cheirogaleus sibreei Sibree’s dwarf lemur DD
Phaner electromontis Amber Mtn. fork-marked lemur VU B1ab(iii)
Phaner furcifer Eastern fork-marked lemur LC
Phaner pallescens Pale fork-marked lemur LC
Phaner parienti Parienti's fork-marked lemur VU B1ab(iii)

Family Lepilemuridae

Lepilemur aeeclis Antafia sportive lemur DD
Lepilemur ahmansoni Ahmanson's sportive lemur DD
Lepilemur ankaranensis Ankarana sportive lemur EN B1ab(iii)
Lepilemur betsileo Betsileo sportive lemur DD
Lepilemur dorsalis Grey-Backed sportive lemur DD
Lepilemur edwardsi Milne-Edwards’ sportive lemur VU B1ab(iii)
Lepilemur fleuretae Fleurete's sportive lemur DD
Lepilemur grewcocki Grewcock's sportive lemur DD
Lepilemur hubbardi Hubbard's sportive lemur DD
Lepilemur jamesi James' sportive lemur DD
Lepilemur leucopus White-Footed sportive lemur DD
Lepilemur microdon Small-Toothed sportive lemur DD
Lepilemur milanoii Dariana sportive lemur DD
Lepilemur mittermeieri Mittermeier's sportive lemur DD
Lepilemur mustelinus Weasel lemur DD
Lepilemur otto Otto's sportive lemur DD
Lepilemur petteri Petter's sportive lemur DD
Lepilemur randrianasoli Randrianasolo's sportive lemur DD
Lepilemur ruficadatus Red-Tailed sportive lemur DD
Lepilemur sahamalazensis Sahamalaza sportive lemur DD
Lepilemur scottorum Scott's sportive lemur NE
Lepilemur seali Seal's sportive lemur DD
Lepilemur septentrionalis Northern sportive lemur CR C2a(i)
Lepilemur tymerlachsoni Hawks' sportive lemur DD
Lepilemur wrighti Wright's sportive lemur DD

Family Lemuridae

Hapalemur alaotrensis Lac Alaotra bamboo lemur CR B1ab(iii,v)
Hapalemur aureus Golden bamboo lemur EN B1ab(iii,v)
Hapalemur griseus griseus
Hapalemur g. ranomafanensis
Hapalemur griseus gilberti
Grey bamboo lemur
Ranomafana grey bamboo l.
Gilbert's grey bamboo lemur
VU A2cd
Hapalemur meridionalis Southern bamboo lemur VU B1ab(iii,v)
Hapalemur cf. occidentalis Tsiombikibo gentle lemur NE
Hapalemur occidentalis Western lesser bamboo lemur VU A2cd
Prolemur simus Broad-Nosed gentle lemur CR C1+2a(i)
Lemur catta Ring-Tailed lemur NT A2cd
Eulemur albifrons White-Fronted lemur VU A2cd
Eulemur albocollaris White-Collared brown lemur CR B1+2abc
Eulemur cinereiceps
EN B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
Eulemur collaris Collared brown lemur VU A2cd
Eulemur coronatus Crowned lemur VU B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
Eulemur flavifrons Sclater's lemur CR A1cd, B1+2bc
Eulemur fulvus Common brown lemur NT A2cd
Eulemur macaco macaco
Eulemur macaco flavifrons
Black lemur
Sclater's lemur
VU B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
EN B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
Eulemur mongoz Mongoose lemur VU B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
Eulemur rubriventer Red-bellied lemur VU A2cd
Eulemur rufifrons Red-fronted lemur NT A2cd
Eulemur rufus Red lemur DD
Eulemur sanfordi Sanford's brown lemur EN B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
Varecia rubra Red-ruffed lemur EN B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
Varecia variegata editorum
Varecia variegata subcincta
Varecia variegata variegata
S. B&W ruffed lemur
White-belted B&W ruffed lemur
Black-and-White ruffed lemur
CR A2cd
CR A2cd
CR A2cd

Family Indriidae

Avahi betsileo Betsileo woolly lemur DD
Avahi cleesei Bemaraha woolly lemur EN B1ab(i,ii,iii)
Avahi laniger Eastern woolly lemur LC
Avahi meridionalis Southern woolly lemur DD
Avahi mooreorum Southern woolly lemur NE
Avahi occidentalis Western woolly lemur EN B1ab(iii)
Avahi peyrierasi Peyrieras' woolly lemur DD
Avahi ramanantsoavanai Ramantsoavana's s. woolly lemur DD
Avahi unicolor Sambirano woolly lemur DD
Propithecus candidus Silky sifaka CR C2a(i)
Propithecus coquereli Coquerel's sifaka EN A2cd
Propithecus coronatus Crowned sifaka EN A2cd
Propithecus deckenii Decken's sifaka VU A2c
Propithecus diadema Diademed sifaka EN A2cd
Propithecus edwardsi Milne-Edwards' sifaka EN A2cd+3cd
Propithecus perrieri Perrier's sifaka CR C2a(ii)
Propithecus tattersalli Golden-Crowned sifaka EN B1ab(ii,iii,v)
Propithecus verreauxi Verreaux's sifaka VU A2cd
Indri indri Indri EN A2cd

Family Daubentoniidae

Daubentonia madagascariensis Aye-Aye NT A2cd


Total Taxa: 105
Total Threatened: 42
Percent Threatened: 40%

NOTE: This taxonomy for lemurs follows Mittermeier et al. (2006) and Mittermeier et al. (submitted). The latter publication includes all the recent descriptions of new lemur taxa up to December 2006, except for Microcebus lokobensis Olivieri et al., 2006 from the Island of Nosy Be (published online 27 November 2006) which is considered to be a junior synonym of M. mamiratra Louis et al., 2006 (printed 4 August 2006). Whereas Mittermeier et al. (2006) listed the form flavifrons as a subspecies of Eulemur macaco, we here list it as a full species (see Mittermeier et al., submitted; Schwitzer et al., 2005, 2006). Groves (2006) argued cogently that the form Eulemur rufifrons (Bennett, 1833) is a valid species and not a junior synonym of E. rufus.

The conservation status of each species is based on assessment summaries provided by the IUCN Red List. The Red List website offers more information on the threat categories listed here.


Andriaholinirina, N., Fausser, J.-L., Roos, C., Zinner, D., Thalmann, U., Rabarivola, C., Ravoarimanana, I., Ganzhorn, J. U., Meier, B., Hilgartner, R., Walter, L., Zaramody, A., Langer, C., Hahn, T., Zimmermann, E., Radespiel, U., Craul, M., Tomiuk, J., Tattersall, I. and Rumpler, Y. 2006. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the sportive lemurs (Lepilemur, Primates). BMC Evolutionary Biology 6: 17.

Andriaholinirina, N., Rabarivola, C., Zaramody, A., Roos, C., Zinner, D., Fausser, J.-L., Hauwy, M. and Rumpler, Y. 2006. Cytogenetic and molecular characterization of the newly described sportive lemur Lepilemur jamesi (Louis et al., 2006). Prim. Rep. 74: 25–33.

Andriantompohavana, R., Lei, R., Zaonarivelo, J. R., Engberg, S. E., Nalanirina, G., McGuire, S. M., Shore, G. D., Andrianasolo, J., Herrington, K., Brenneman, R. A. and Louis Jr., E. E. 2007. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the woolly lemurs, genus Avahi (Primates: Lemuriformes). Texas Tech University Special Publications: 51: 1-59.

Groves, C. P. 2006. Red lemurs and red-fronted lemurs are not the same. Paper presented at 24th Annual Conference of Australasian Primate Society, Perth, 1–2 April 2006.

Louis Jr., E. E., Coles, M. S., Andriantompohavana, R., Sommer, J. A., Engberg, S. E., Zaonarivelo, J. R., Mayor, M. I. and Brenneman, R. A. 2006. Revision of the mouse lemurs (Primates, Microcebus) of Madagascar. Int. J. Primatol. 27: 347–389.

Louis Jr., E. E., Engberg, S. E., Lei, R., Geng, H., Sommer, J. A., Randriamampionona, R., Randriamanana, J. C., Zaonarivelo, J. R., Andriantompohavana, R., Randria, G., Prosper, Ramaromilanto, B., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rooney, A. and Brenneman, R. A. 2006. Molecular and morphological analyses of the sportive lemurs (Family Megaladapidae: Genus Lepilemur) reveals 11 previously unrecognized species. Spec. Publ. Texas Tech Univ. (49): 1–47.

Mittermeier, R. A., Konstant, W. R., Hawkins, F., Louis Jr., E. E., Langrand, O., Ratsimbafazy, J., Rasoloarison, R., Ganzhorn, J. U., Rajaobelina, S., Tattersall, I. and Meyers, D. M. 2006. Lemurs of Madagascar. Second Edition. Conservation International, Washington, DC.

Mittermeier, R. A., Ganzhorn, J. U., Konstant, W. R., Glander, K., Tattersall, I., Groves, C. P., Rylands, A. B., Hapke, A., Ratsimbazafy, J., Mayor, M. I., Louis Jr., E. E., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C. and Rasoloarison, R. M. Submitted. Lemur diversity in Madagascar.

Olivieri, G., Zimmermann, E., Randrianambinina, B., Rassoloharijaona, S., Rakotondravony, Gsuchanski, K. and Radespiel, U. In press. The ever-increasing diversity in mouse lemurs: Three new species in north and northwestern Madagascar. Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. - DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2006.10.026.

Rabarivola, C., Zaramody, A., Fausser, J.-L., Andriaholinirina, N., Roos, C., Zinner, D., Marcel, H. and Rumpler, Y. 2006. Cytogenetic and molecular characteristics of a new species of sportive lemur from Northern Madagascar. Lemur News (11): 45-49.

Thalmann, U. and Geissmann, T. 2005. New species of woolly lemur Avahi (Primates: Lemuriformes) from Bemaraha (Central Western Madagascar). Am. J. Primatol. 67(3): 371–376.

Schwitzer, C., Schwitzer, N., Randriatahina, G. H. and Kaumanns, W. 2005. Inventory of the Eulemur macaco flavifrons population in the Sahamalaza protected area, northwestern Madagascar, with notes on an unusual color variant of E. macaco. Prim. Rep. Special Issue 72-1: 39–40. Abstract. 5 Göttinger Freilandtage ‘Primate Diversity—Past, Present and Future’, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Göttingen, 13–16 December 2005.

Schwitzer, C., Schwitzer, N., Randriatahina, G. H., Rabarivola, C. and Kaumanns, W. 2006. "Programme Sahamalaza": New perspectives for the in situ and ex situ study and conservation of the blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur macaco flavifrons) in a fragmented habitat. In: Schwitzer, C., Brandt, S., Ramilijaona, O., Rakotomalala Razanahoera, M., Ackermand, D., Razakamanana, T., and Ganzhorn, J. U. (eds.), Proceedings of the German-Malagasy Research Cooperation in Life and Earth Sciences, Concept Verlag, Berlin, pp.135–149.

Zaramody, A., Fausser, J.-L., Roos, C., Zinner, D., Andriaholinirina, N., Rabarivola, C., Norscia, I., Tattersall, I. and Rumpler, Y. 2006. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the eastern woolly lemurs (Avahi laniger). Prim. Rep. 74: 9–22.

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